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Mania and Hypomania in Bipolar Disorder

Mania and hypomania are states in which a person feels ecstatic, embroiled, and energized. Hypomania is a form of mania that is less acute. Mania and hypomania are often characterized by cycles in which the person feels elated or energized. They vary in the severity of their mood swings. Mania is a chronic mental illness that can last a week or more. You may experience uncontrollable elation and a surge of energy. These symptoms make it difficult to go through your everyday activities, and in serious situations, you will need to visit the hospital.

Hypomania is a short-term mental illness that lasts a few days. You may feel great and perform well. Family and associates may detect differences in mood or behavior, but the hypomanic may not. Bipolar disorder is the most common root of mania and hypomania. There may also be a symptom of some mental illnesses, such as schizoaffective disorder.

Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition in which a person’s mood, motivation, activity levels, and thinking patterns fluctuate. Mania is experienced by those with bipolar I disorder; those with bipolar II disorder experience hypomania.

The distinctions between mania and hypomania and their symptoms, medications, and prevention are discussed in this article.

 

Myths and Facts About Bipolar Disorder

 

  • Myth: People who have bipolar disorder are unable to improve or live a regular life.
    Fact: Bipolar syndrome affects many people who have good careers, stable families, and fulfilling marriages. Living with bipolar disorder is difficult, but you can live a full life by treating your symptoms with medication, having safe coping strategies, and having a strong support structure.
  • Myth: Bipolar syndrome causes people to alternate between mania and depression.
    Fact: Few people alternate between manic and depressive spells, but most people are distressed more often than manic. Mania can be so subtle that it goes unnoticed. People with bipolar disorder will also go for long periods of time without experiencing symptoms.
  • Myth: Only the mood is affected by bipolar disorder.
    Fact: Your energy level, judgment, memory, attention, appetite, sleep habits, sex desire, and self-esteem are all affected by bipolar disorder. Anxiety, alcohol abuse, and health issues such as diabetes, heart disease, migraines, and elevated blood pressure have also been attributed to bipolar disorder.
  • Myth: There is nothing you can do to treat bipolar disorder other than taking drugs.
    Fact: Though medicine is at the heart of bipolar disorder rehabilitation, counseling and self-help techniques are crucial. Exercise daily, get enough sleep, diet well, track your moods, keep depression to a minimum, and surround yourself with helpful friends. These activities will help you manage your symptoms.

 

Symptoms of Mania

Bipolar depression used to be lumped together with normal depression. However, an increasing body of evidence indicates substantial distinctions between the two, especially when it comes to treatment recommendations.

Antidepressants do not benefit the majority of patients with bipolar disorder. Antidepressants have the potential to exacerbate bipolar disorder by inducing mania or hypomania, causing frequent fluctuations between mood cycles, or competing with other mood-stabilizing medications. Mania is more than just a shift of mood or energy level. Mania’s effects are so severe that they can interfere with your relationships, work, or overall well-being.

Despite certain correlations, bipolar disorder has a higher prevalence of such manifestations than normal depression. Bipolar depression, for example, is more likely to trigger irritability, guilt, erratic mood swings, and restlessness. You can walk and talk slowly, sleep a lot, and put on weight if you have bipolar disorder. Furthermore, you’re more likely to develop manic depression — a disorder in which you lose touch with reality — as well as serious job and social issues.

Mania does not necessarily imply that an individual is content. Although mania can result in euphoria, it can also result in severe irritability. Mania can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including:

  • The excitement that can’t be contained
  • Feeling elated or overjoyed
  • Feeling agitated or irritable
  • High quantities of energy that are difficult to regulate
  • Difficulty paying attention or focusing, fidgeting, or jumping around
  • Self-esteem that is irrational and too high
  • A loss of inhibitions in social situations
  • Thoughts whirling
  • Sleeping less or not at all
  • Taking risks or engaging in risky behavior
  • Suicide or self-harming impulses

During a manic episode, you may suffer psychotic symptoms. These may include hallucinations and grandiose illusions. A person may imagine themselves to be invincible, strong, or iconic. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), manic attacks of bipolar disorder last at least seven days but can last longer if the signs are serious enough to warrant hospitalization. You may feel fine in between episodes, or have minor residual symptoms.

 

Symptoms of Hypomania

Hypomania is a form of mania that is less severe. Hypomania is a symptom of bipolar II disorder. A diagnosis of bipolar 1 is normally more fitting if a complete manic disorder happens. Hypomania can cause the following symptoms:

  • Being in a better, more upbeat mood than normal
  • Higher levels of irritability or rudeness
  • A degree of overconfidence
  • High energy levels
  • A strong sense of physical and emotional health
  • Being much more talkative and social than normal
  • An urge for sex that is greater than normal

 

Differences

Many of the symptoms of hypomania and mania are similar. The seriousness of these signs is what sets them apart. Mania and hypomania both entail mood and behavior alterations that are not typical of daily life. Mania is so serious that it can prevent you from carrying out your daily activities. You may need emergency hospitalization in more serious cases. If you’re suffering from hypomania, you may be able to function normally. Even if you’re unaware of it, family and friends can recognize that your behavior is different. You should, however, consult a doctor for your ailment to prevent the symptoms from escalating.

Despite the fact that hypomania is not as serious as mania, it can also be risky and have detrimental consequences for your overall wellness. According to one report, people were more likely to partake in reckless actions during bouts of hypomania. Spending a lot of money, abusing alcohol or narcotics, driving recklessly, or engaging in dangerous sexual activity were prime examples. Delusions, hallucinations, and manic stupor can manifest in people who are experiencing mania but not hypomania. If a person with hypomania does not undergo adequate therapy, it may progress to mania, but this is not necessarily the case.

 

Similarities

Feeling extremely happy, emotionally high, and feeling more enthusiastic and imaginative are indicators of mania and hypomania. A period of mania or hypomania can be combined with a depressive episode in some cases. This is referred to as a mixed features episode by experts. When this combination occurs, you may feel both energized and sad, helpless, or empty.

Life experiences or behaviors may trigger an experience of mania or hypomania. These occurrences are referred to as triggers. A small study in a group of young adults with bipolar disorder discovered the following triggers for mania and hypomania:

  • Romantic interest
  • Recreational drug use, especially stimulant drug use
  • Launching a new creative endeavor
  • Partying or going out late
  • Going on vacation
  • Loud music

Another research experiment discovered that the following causes could also contribute to mania:

  • Tension
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Antidepressant medication use

 

When to See a Doctor

If you experience mood swings that are more pronounced than normal, you should seek medical help. Bipolar disorder is difficult to detect, but a thorough medical history, physical examination, and discourse of moods and symptoms may aid in the process. If a friend or family member is suffering from mania or hypomania, you may want to speak to them about visiting a doctor and receiving help.

 

Treatment and Prevention

Mania and hypomania have no cures, but drugs and talking therapies can help patients address their symptoms. These therapies may aid in the prevention of mania, hypomania, and depressive episodes. To avoid symptoms of mania or depression, you must take your medications as directed by a doctor, which is usually on a regular basis.

The following medications will aid in the treatment of bipolar disorder:

For those who have trouble sleeping, sleep drugs can be effective for a short time. A mixture of drugs and talk therapy will help a lot of patients. Talk therapy, also known as psychotherapy, can assist those with bipolar disorder by providing empathy, advice, and education.

People on anti-mania or anti-hypomania treatment should not stop their treatments without first seeing a doctor. When mania returns, abruptly halting treatment may result in more serious symptoms. There is also the possibility of dangerous withdrawal symptoms.

While lifestyle changes alone cannot remedy mania and hypomania, you should do the following to control your symptoms and potentially prevent triggers:

  • Eat a balanced diet and don’t miss meals.
  • Maintain healthy sleeping habits. If necessary, go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Avoid getting up late, and stick to a regular sleep routine.
  • Keep a mood diary or use a mood map to keep track of your mood swings. These may assist you in detecting the onset of mania or hypomania so that you can work with your therapist to handle it.
  • Keep all of your appointments and take your medications as directed by your doctor.
  • If you have suicidal or self-harming feelings, get treatment right away.

If you meet someone who is at risk of self-harm, suicide, or harming another person, take the following steps:

  • Call 911 or the appropriate emergency number in your area.
  • Keep an eye on the individual before clinical assistance arrives.
  • Take any guns, drugs, or other potentially dangerous items out of the room.
  • Listen to the other party without passing any judgment.

A suicide awareness hotline will assist you or someone you meet who is experiencing suicidal thoughts. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline can be reached at 1-800-273-8255 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Bipolar depression cannot be prevented, but its symptoms can be avoided or managed with the help of requisite medical treatment.

 

Granite Recovery Centers

At Granite Recovery Centers, our special care specialists have evidence-based restorative psychotherapies woven into a standardized 12-Step Program. This program is guided by trained 12-step facilitators.

We also use evidence-based therapy (EBT), which is a set of psychotherapeutic approaches for detecting, dissecting, and rewiring dysfunctional feelings and attitudes that have been clinically established. In addition, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), trauma therapy, mental health programs, and grief and loss therapy are other clinical treatments that we use at Granite Recovery Centers.

 

Outlook

Mania and hypomania are indications and manifestations of mood disorders, with the most common being bipolar disorder. Mania is more common in bipolar I disease, whereas hypomania is more common in people with bipolar II disorder. Hypomania is a milder form of manic behavior. The symptoms of both cases are identical, but manias are more extreme and disruptive than hypomania.

With the help of a psychiatrist or other health care providers, you may overcome your mania or hypomania episodes. Contact Granite Recovery Centers to see how we can help.